• 23 APR 16
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    Myths and Wrong Understanding of Eyes and Complaints

    Myths and Wrong Understanding of Eyes and Complaints

    Banyak pemahaman menyesatkan tentang penyakit mata yang tak jarang menjerumuskan pasien. Mengobati sendiri penyakit mata tak selalu aman dan perlu diwaspadai, karena tidak semua kelainan dan penyakit mata sama obatnya.
    #1 Mata merah disebabkan oleh debu

    Tidak selalu benar. Lebih sering mata merah disebabkan oleh bibit penyakit. Kita mencurigai mata merah sebagai infeksi jika terjadi dalam musim-musim tertentu dimana banyak orang yang terkena mata merah. Bisa jadi sudah terjadi wabah mata merah di suatu kota atau wilayah. Namun, bisa juga mata merah disebabkan oleh debu. Debu, pasir, kotoran, sabun mandi, dapat menimbulkan mata merah. Namun perlu dibedakan dengan mata merah sebab infeksi.

    Pada mata merah infeksi, selain gatal, rasa tidak nyaman seperti rasa berpasir, silau (photophobia), terasa mengganjal, banyak mengeluarkan airmata, dan semakin hari semakin bertambah merah. Mungkin disertai pembengkakan kelopak mata, dan waktu bangun tidur mata tertutup rapat dan banyak kotoran mata (belekan). Mata merah yang disebabkan debu biasanya tidak belekan, jarang membengkak, dan merahnya semakin hari cenderung semakin pudar dan bisa mereda sendiri. Mata merah infeksi sukar menyembuh sendiri tanpa obat. Ada sebagian penderita yang merah pada bagian dalam kelopak matanya (conjunctiva palpebra).  Penyebabnya juga infeksi bibit pernyakit, mulai dari virus, kuman, sampai jamur.

    #2 Bintitan disebabkan sering mengintip

    Tidak benar. Bukan disebababkan sering mengintip sehingga terjadi bintitan. Ini juga tergolong infeksi mata. Beda dengan penyakit mata merah, bibit penyakitnya bersarang bukan di bola mata atau selaput lendir kelopak mata, melainkan di kelenjar-kelenjar yang ada di kelopak mata. Kita tahu di kelopak mata terdapat beberapa kelenjar, seperti kelenjar airmata, kelenjar minyak pembasah bulu mata. Jika kelenjar ini dimasuki bibit penyakit, maka akan terbentuk bisul. Bisul kelenjar ini yang menimbulkan penyakit bintitan (hordeolum)

    Bintitan tidak boleh dibiarkan berlama-lama tanpa pengobatan. Kenapa? karena jika bisulnya sudah telanjur membatu/mengeras, akan sukar mengempis kembali meskipun diobati. Terlambat mengobati bintitan, memerlukan tindakan operasi untuk membuang batu bisulnya (Chalazion).

    #3 Penyakit rabun jauh dapat diobati dengan banyak makan wortel

    Salah. Kita tahu, penyakit rabun jauh disebabkan oleh tidak tepatnya bayangan jatuh pada retina (layar bola mata). Pada kelainan mata myopia ini, bayangan yang kita lihat jatuhnya di depan retina. Keadaan ini dapat disebabkan oleh kelainan kornea (hitam mata), gangguan lensa, atau sumbu bola mata. Bola mata yang besar (seperti anak-anak sekarang), menjadikan sumbu bola mata lebih panjang dari normal. Itu yang membuat bayangan yang kita lihat selalu jatuh di depan retina, sehingga bayangan tidak tampak jelas, melainkan samar-samar ketika sedang melihat jauh. Tidak soal ketika melihat dekat.

    Wortel dan sumber vitamin A lainnya bermanfaat untuk sel-sel di layar retina (bagian belakang bola mata), tempat bayangan yang kita lihat ditangkap lalu dikirimkan ke otak untuk ditafsirkan. Sel-sel retina, selain untuk menangkap penglihatan terang-gelap, juga untuk warna. Jika penyebab kelainan mata adalah gangguan sel-sel saraf retina, masuk akal wortel bisa membantu. Namun, rabun jauh lebih sering disebabkan oleh berubahnya sumbu bola mata. Sebagian sebab keturunan.

    Kelainan sumbu bola mata hanya mungkin dinormalkan dengan mengoreksi sumbu bola mata yang panjang, agar bayangan tepat jatuh di retina. Caranya dengan memberi lensa pembantu (lensa minus) sebesar yang memberikan hasil bayangan yang kita lihat menjadi tepat jatuh di retina. Semakin panjang sumbu bola mata, semakin jauh bayangannya jatuh di depan retina, semakin besar minus lensa bantuan yang perlu diberikan.

    #4 Tidak semua orang dalam hidupnya perlu berkacamata

    Juga tidak benar. Orang yang matanya sehat dan normal pun setelah berumur lewat 40 tahun, akan memerlukan kacamata baca untuk rabun dekat (presbyopia). Rabun dekat bukan penyakit, melainkan bagian dari proses menua. Suka tidak suka, setiap orang akan mengalami rabun dekat. Untuk itu perlu dibantu dengan kacamata baca (lensa positif). Semakin bertambah tua, semakin besar kacamata baca yang diperlukan, agar pada jarak baca sehat (33 cm) orang bisa jelas membaca.

    Pada penderita rabun jauh, mungkin sudah sejak kecil memerlukan kacamata. Mata minus keturunan umumnya sudah dialami sejak masih sekolah dasar. Kasus ini tidak bisa diobati tanpa kacamata. Jika myopia dibiarkan, minusnya akan cepat bertambah. Penyakit mata rabun jauh myopia tidak bisa berkurang, apalagi kembali seperti mata normal lagi, meskipun sudah memakai kacamata.

    #5 Rabun senja dapat dikoreksi dengan memakai kacamata

    Keliru. Penyakit rabun senja, yaitu mereka yang terganggu melihat gelap (setelah matahari terbenam), tidak bisa dikoreksi dengan kacamata. Penyakit rabun senja terjadi jika sel-sel saraf pembeda terang-gelap di retina terganggu. Ini umumnya terjadi sebab kekurangan vitamin A untuk waktu lama. Anak kurang gizi, yang umumnya kurang makan sumber vitamin A yang yang banyak dalam ikan, susu, sayur-mayur, dan buah, banyak mengidap rabun senja. Maka, cara koreksinya bukan dengan kacamata, melainkan dengan memberi ekstra vitamin A dosis tinggi.

    #6 Buta disebabkan bawaan sejak lahir

    Tidak selalu. Hanya sedikit kelainan mata yang berakibat kebutaan yang dibawa sejak lahir. Penyakit yang diidap ibu selama hamil ada beberapa yang bisa mengganggu mata, seperti toxoplasma. Namun, kebutaan lebih banyak disebabkan oleh kekurangan vitamin A, glaucoma, dan katarak.

    Di Indonesia, angka kebutaan sebab kekurangan vitamin A masih banyak. Jika rabun senja sebagai gejala awal kekurangan vitamin A dibiarkan tanpa koreksi dengan memberi vitamin A dosis tinggi, kerusakan mata akan berlanjut. Tampak bercak putih pualam pada putih mata (bitot spot), yang jika masih tidak dikoreksi juga, akan merusak bola mata, menjadi bisul di putih mata, dan akhirnya bola mata akan mengempis, lalu menciut. Pada stadium lanjut ini, mata sudah tak mungkin diselamatkan lagi, dan akhirnya buta sama sekali.

    There are many misleading understandings of eye diseases that often plunge patients. Treating yourself eye disease is not always safe and needs to be watched out, because not all eye disorders and diseases are the same medicine.
    # 1 Red eyes caused by dust

    Not always true. More often red eye is caused by germs. We suspect red eye as an infection if it occurs in certain seasons where many people are affected by red eyes. It could be that there has been a red-eye outbreak in a city or region. However, red eyes can also be caused by dust. Dust, sand, dirt, bath soap, can cause red eyes. But it needs to be distinguished from red eye because of infection.

    In the red eye infection, in addition to itching, discomfort such as feeling sandy, photophobia, feels choked, takes out a lot tears, and more and more red days. It may be accompanied by swelling of the eyelids, and when you wake up your eyes are tightly closed and there is a lot of eye droppings. Red eyes caused by dust are usually not torn, rarely swell, and the redness of the day tends to fade and can subside on its own. Red eye infection is difficult to heal itself without medication. There are some people who are red on the inside of their eyelids (conjunctiva palpebra). The causes are also infectious seed infections, ranging from viruses, germs, to fungi.

    # 2 Spots are caused by frequent peeping

    Not true. Not caused by frequent peeping so that a nodule occurs. This is also classified as an eye infection. Unlike the red eye disease, the seeds of the disease are lodged not in the eyeball or the mucous membranes of the eyelids, but in the glands in the eyelids. We know that on the eyelids there are several glands, such as the tear glands, eyelash wetting oil glands. If these glands are entered by the germs, a boil will form. These glandular ulcers cause hordeolum

    Bintits should not be allowed to linger without treatment. Why? because if the boil has been petrified / hardened, it will be difficult to deflate again even though it is treated. Late in treating nodules, requires surgery to remove the ulcer (Chalazion).

    # 3 Nearsightedness can be treated by eating lots of carrots

    False. We know that nearsightedness is caused by the improper shadow falling on the retina (eyeball screen). In this myopia eye disorder, the shadow that we see falls in front of the retina. This condition can be caused by corneal abnormalities (black eyes), disruption of the lens, or eyeball axis. Large eyeballs (like children now), make the eyeball axis longer than normal. That’s what makes the shadows that we see always fall in front of the retina, so that the shadow does not appear clear, but vaguely when looking far away. It doesn’t matter when looking closely.

    Carrots and other sources of vitamin A are useful for cells on the retinal screen (the back of the eyeball), the place of shadow that we see captured then sent to the brain to be interpreted. Retinal cells, in addition to capturing bright-dark vision, also for color. If the cause of eye abnormalities is a disruption of retinal nerve cells, it makes sense that carrots can help. However, nearsightedness is more often caused by changes in the eyeball axis. Part of the cause of descent.

    The eyeball axis abnormality may only be normalized by correcting the long axis of the eyeball, so that the shadow just falls on the retina. The trick is to give a helper lens (minus lens) the size that gives the results of the shadow that we see to be precisely falling on the retina. The longer the axis of the eyeball, the farther the shadow falls in front of the retina, the greater the minus lens of assistance that needs to be given.

    # 4 Not everyone in his life needs glasses

    Also incorrect. Even people who are healthy and normal after 40 years of age, will need reading glasses for presbyopia. Nearsightedness is not a disease, but a part of the aging process. Like it or not, everyone will experience farsightedness. For this reason, it needs to be assisted with reading glasses (positive lenses). As you get older, the larger reading glasses are needed, so that at a healthy reading distance (33 cm) people can clearly read.

    In patients with nearsightedness, maybe they need glasses from childhood. Eyes minus heredity have generally been experienced since they were in elementary school. This case cannot be treated without glasses. If myopia is left, the minus will quickly increase. Nearsightedness myopia can not be reduced, let alone return to normal eyes, even if you wear glasses.

    # 5 Night blindness can be corrected using glasses

    Incorrect. Night blindness, ie those who are disturbed see darkness (after sunset), cannot be corrected with glasses. Night blindness occurs when bright-dark differentiating nerve cells in the retina are disrupted. This generally occurs because of vitamin A deficiency for a long time. Malnourished children, who generally lack a large source of vitamin A in fish, milk, vegetables, and fruit, many suffer from night blindness. So, the way of correction is not with glasses, but by giving extra high dose vitamin A.

    # 6 Blindness due to default from birth

    Not always. Only a few eye disorders result in birth-blindness. Diseases that occur in the mother during pregnancy are some that can interfere with the eyes, such as toxoplasma. However, more blindness is caused by vitamin A deficiency, glaucoma, and cataracts.

    In Indonesia, the number of blindness is due to lack of vitamin A is still a lot. If night blindness as an initial symptom of vitamin A deficiency is left without correction by giving high doses of vitamin A, eye damage will continue. White spots appear on the white of the eye (bitot spot), which, if still not corrected, will damage the eyeball, become boils in the white of the eye, and eventually the eyeball will deflate, then shrink. At this advanced stage, the eyes cannot be saved anymore, and finally totally blind.

    # 7 Eye drops can be used to treat all red eyes

    Not true. There are many types of eye drops. We know drops for red eye caused by infection. Red eye caused by an infection cannot be cured with drops that are on the market. In fact, using drops on the market can make red eye disease worse.

    Eye drops for eye infections are also distinguished, some for germs, some for viruses, fungi, and types of eye infections those without eye injuries. In cases of eye infections without wounds, eye drops may be given with corticostreroid as an anti-inflammatory drug, but not for cases of injury.

    Already mentioned above, red eye itself is not caused by infection. It could also be due to dust or allergies, and caused by glaucoma eye disease. In this disease, the pressure of the eyeball is elevated, with one of the symptoms being red eye. Of course, the eyes are red because glaucoma cannot be treated with infectious eye drops or eye drops that are bought in stalls, but must be with a special medicine to reduce eyeball pressure. Allowing prolonged glaucoma can end in blindness. Red eyes because the herpes virus cannot be treated with ordinary eye drops, but with antiviral eye drops. Likewise if red eyes are caused by allergies, which only subside if treated with eye drops containing hypo-allergenic drugs.

    # 8 Glaucoma eye disease caused by high blood pressure

    False. Glaucoma is caused by increased pressure inside the eyeball. The causes are many, there are derivatives, so the eye fluid system inside the eyeball is blocked, or narrowed. Non-derivatives can be caused by lens disruption, mature or ruptured cataracts, post-eye surgery, disease in the inside of the eyeball (iris), which results in disruption of the eye fluid flow system, and ends with increased eyeball pressure. The elevation of eye pressure has nothing to do with high blood pressure. People who have high blood pressure do not have to have high eye pressure. Conversely, low blood people may not necessarily be glaucoma.

    # 9 Cataracts are only for older people

    Not always true. Indeed more cataracts occur in old age, as part of the aging process. However, babies can get cataracts. Cataracts from birth are carried by babies from the womb. Baby cataract types are different from adult and elderly cataracts. Cataracts as a complication of other diseases can be suffered before old age, including complications of diabetes, due to radiation, sunlight, or damage to the lens of the eye by free radicals, which will occur well before old age.

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